# Normal form of arrays

The Orthogonal Array package contains functions to reduce arrays and designs to canonical form with respect to some ordering. The default ordering for orthogonal arrays is the lexicographic ordering in columns [SEN10]. The default ordering for conference designs is the LMC0 ordering [SEG19]. Alternative orderings include the delete-one-factor projection ordering introduced in [Een13] or the even-odd ordering. For a given ordering of a set of arrays, the minimal element of all arrays in an isomorphism class defines a unique representative of that isomorphism class.

Specialized packages such as Nauty [McK81], [MP13] can also reduce arrays to their canonical form using state-of-the-art, graph-isomorphism methods. However, these methods do not take into account the special structure of the arrays and so, they cannot be tailored to create normal forms of a specific form.

## Reduction to LMC normal form

The Orthogonal Array package implements theory and methods from the article Complete enumeration of pure-level and mixed-level orthogonal arrays, Schoen et al. to
reduce orthogonal arrays to their LMC normal form. The C++ function to perform
the reduction is `reduceLMCform()`

. An example on how to use
this function is shown below.

```
>>> import oapackage
>>> oapackage.set_srand(1)
>>> array = oapackage.exampleArray(1, 0).selectFirstColumns(3)
>>> array = array.randomperm()
>>> print('input array:'); array.transposed().showarraycompact()
input array:
1100010111010001
0101100110100011
0000001111101101
>>> reduced_array = oapackage.reduceLMCform(array)
>>> print('reduced array:'); reduced_array.transposed().showarraycompact()
reduced array:
0000000011111111
0000111100001111
0001011101110001
```

It is also possible to check whether an array is in normal form
with the `LMCcheck()`

method:

```
>>> import oapackage
>>> array = oapackage.exampleArray(1)
>>> lmc_type = oapackage.LMCcheck(array)
>>> if lmc_type == oapackage.LMC_MORE:
... print('array is in minimal form')
... elif lmc_type == oapackage.LMC_LESS:
... print('array is not in minimal form')
array is in minimal form
```

## Reduction to delete-one-factor projection form

The article A canonical form for non-regular arrays based on generalized word length pattern values of delete-one-factor projections
[Een13] describes a canonical form of an orthogonal array based on delete-one-factor projections.
The C++ interface to delete-one-factor projection form is `reduceDOPform()`

.
The reduction method works well for large arrays with a large variation in the projection values.

An example on how to use this reduction is shown in Example code for delete-one-factor projections, which can be found in the example notebooks section.

## Reduction using graph isomorphisms

The function `reduceOAnauty()`

reduces an orthogonal array to Nauty canonical form. To reduce general graphs to Nauty canonical form, the Orthogonal Array package includes the function `reduceGraphNauty()`

.

Reduce a design to normal form using Nauty

```
>>> oapackage.set_srand(1)
>>> al = oapackage.exampleArray(0).randomperm()
>>> al.showarray()
array:
0 0
0 1
1 1
0 1
1 0
0 0
1 0
1 1
>>> transformation=oapackage.reduceOAnauty(al, 0)
>>> transformation.show()
array transformation: N 8
column permutation: {0,1}
level perms:
{0,1}
{0,1}
row permutation: {0,5,1,3,4,6,2,7}
>>> alr=transformation.apply(al)
>>> alr.showarray()
array:
0 0
0 0
0 1
0 1
1 0
1 0
1 1
1 1
```

## Normal forms for conference designs

For conference designs, a convenient normal form is the LMC0 ordering (sometimes also called L0 ordering) [SEG19].

LMC0 ordering

The LMC0 ordering for conference designs is defined in three steps:

- Definition LMC0 i:
Order of elementsThe LMC0 order of the factor levels -1, 0 and +1 is 0 < +1 < -1.

- Definition LMC0 ii:
Order of columnsA column a is smaller than a column b according to LMC0 ordering, notated as a < b, if either of the following conditions hold:

If we replace the values -1 by +1 in both columns, then the first element where the columns differ is smaller in a than in b according to Definition 1.

The zeros in column a are in the same position as the zeros in column b, and the first element where the columns differ is smaller in a than in b according to Definition i.

- Definition LMC0 iii:
Order of designsConference design A is smaller than conference design B according to LMC0 ordering, notated as A < B, if the first column where the designs differ is smaller in A than in B.

The definition implies that the ordering of designs is column-by-column and that the position of zeros in the columns is dominant over the values +1, -1.
To check whether a design is in LMC0 form, we can use `LMC0check()`

:

Conference design in normal form

```
>>> array = oapackage.exampleArray(53,1)
exampleArray 53: third array in C(12,4)
>>> array.showarray()
array:
0 1 1 1
1 0 -1 1
1 1 0 -1
1 1 1 -1
1 1 1 -1
1 1 -1 1
1 1 -1 1
1 -1 1 0
1 -1 1 1
1 -1 1 1
1 -1 -1 -1
1 -1 -1 -1
>>> oapackage.LMC0check(array) == oapackage.LMC_LESS
True
```